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At any rate in a Bull of Honorius III, Viterbo, 22 Sept., 1220 ( Bull. xviii of the second rule, that much authority is given to the ministers through the general chapter, which hitherto had been frequented by all the brothers, but now is reserved to the ministers. It has been preserved in many manuscripts and has been often printed, but there are some noteworthy discrepancies of text in chaps. The following remarks may be added to characterize it. 1216) show clearly that the second rule is only an enlarged version of the primitive one. iv and xviii appears an organization, which at the time the first rule was written (1209) could not have existed, since St. The Life of Brother Giles (Analecta Francisc., iii, 74 sq., and the introduction of Robinson's "The Golden Sayings of the Blessed Brother Giles," Philadelphia, 1907) may be read as an illustration of this chapter. Elias, to whom this rule was entrusted, after a few days declared that he had lost it, hence St. Spiritual sources give other rather dramatic circumstances, under which the new rule was communicated to the provincials, headed by Brother Elias. Francis say nothing on the point, it may be supposed that those records serve only to justify the Spirituals in their opposition to the rest of the order. The rule of 1223 is the Franciscan Rule properly so called, the rule which the Friars Minor still observe. x in the third rule were much in favour of the friars, who recurred to their ministers for the pure observance of the rule, but Honorius III, seeing the inconvenience of such a large concession, modified those passages, before approving the rule.
Franc., I, 6), addressed "to the Priors or Custodes of the Friars Minor," one year of novitiate is introduced, in conformity with other orders, after which no one may leave the order (c. The second rule was probably published at the General Chapter of Portiuncula, 1221, where for the last time all the friars convened. The rule of 1221 consists of twenty-three chapters, some of which are composed almost entirely of scriptural texts; in others many admonitions are found and towards the end even prayers. It may appear strange that neither Thomas of Celano nor St. iv) relates that when the order had greatly increased, St. The rule composed in 1223 was solemnly confirmed by the Bull "Solet annuere" of Honorius III, 29 Nov., 1223 ( Bull. It is named by Franciscan authors "Regula bullata" or "Regula secunda." The question has been put whether St. Francis wrote to a certain minister, perhaps to Elias, he proposes that at the next chapter of Whitsuntide a chapter of the rule should be written to the effect that if any brother has sinned venially and humbly owns it, they (the ministers or the priests ) shall "have absolutely no power of enjoining other penance save only this: go and sin no more." Now in c. Thirdly, Gregory IX, in the Bull "Quo elongati" (1230), says that he knew the intention of St. 372 sq.) has with skill attacked all these arguments.
Beautiful exhortations follow on the behaviour of the brothers when they go through the world.
They are forbidden to ride on horseback, unless compelled by manifest necessity or infirmity (c. The next chapter "strictly enjoins on all the brothers that in no wise they receive coins or money, either themselves or through an interposed person." However, the ministers and custodes have to take the greatest care of their subjects through spiritual friends, according to places and times and other circumstances, saving always that, as has been said, they shall not "receive coins or money" (c. To banish idleness and to provide for their support, St. It contains the prescriptions of the most ideal poverty: "The brothers shall appropriate nothing to themselves, neither a house nor place nor anything. The following chapter treats of penance to be inflicted on brothers who have sinned.
xiv): "At Whitsuntide [every year] all the brethren assembled unto St.
The following passages, Matt., xix, 21; Matt., xvi, 24; Luke, ix, 3, occurring in the second rule (i and xiv), are considered as a part of the original one of 1209.
They enjoin apostolical life with all its renouncements and privations. cit.) and the so-called "Legend of the Three Companions" (viii) repeat almost the same words.
The three vows of obedience, chastity, and poverty, essential to any religious order, and some practical rules of conduct were added. The fact can otherwise be gathered from the description of the early state of the order, made by St.
Thomas of Celano says in this regard (I Cel., i, 13): "Blessed Francis, seeing that the Lord God was daily increasing the number [of the brethren] for that very purpose, wrote down simply and in few words for himself and for his brethren, both present and future, a pattern and rule of life, using chiefly the language of the holy Gospel after whose perfection alone he yearned" [version of Ferrers Howell (London, 1908), p. Francis himself in the "Testament": "And when the Lord gave me some brothers, no one showed me what I ought to do, but the Most High Himself revealed to me that I should live according to the form of the holy Gospel.